The Complete Guide to Container Vegetable Gardening for Beginners (2024)

Container gardening is a fantastic way to grow vegetables, especially when you lack yard space! If you have a small gardening area or only have access to a patio, balcony, driveway, or rooftop, see our guide on guide on vegetable container gardening forbeginners!

What is ContainerGardening?

Container gardening is growing in pots; this allows those of us who don’t have room for raised beds or a huge garden plot to grow our own food,too.

The Benefits of ContainerGardening

The great thing about growing in containers is being able to pick up pots and move them where you know they’ll thrive.Even if it’s only one or two pots on the side of your driveway or in the corner of your balcony, gardening in containers allows you to maximize all of your availablespace.


  • 10 Vegetables To Grow in Buckets, Bags, or Baskets

  • 10 Things to Consider When Balcony Gardening

  • Pros and Cons: Row Gardening Vs. Raised Beds Vs. Containers

Container gardening also gives you much more control over your growing. You can have an ideal growing medium with the right amount of nutrients. You’ll certainly have fewer weeds or even no weeding, and you can streamline your gardening tasks. Harvesting is much cleaner and easier,too.

A Beginner’s Guide to ContainerGardening

Just as with a standard garden bed, consider things such as sunlight exposure, water accessibility, and protection from wind when deciding where to put yourcontainers.

  • To maximize your veggie harvest, you’ll want to place your pots in an area that gets full sun (i.e., 6 to 8 hours of sunlight per day). Lettuce, spinach, and other greens can grow well in less sunlight (3 to 5 hours per day), but for fruiting plants like tomatoes, peppers, squash, or eggplant, full sun should be the goal. Southern and western exposures will provide the most sunlight and warmth, while northern and eastern exposures will be shadier andcooler.
  • It’s also a good idea to put your pots somewhere that you can reach with a watering hose. Keep in mind that container gardens tend to need more water than standard in-ground gardens, and there’s nothing worse than having to lug a gardening can across your yard a dozen times every morning—and then having to do it again in the evening! Having an easily accessible source of water nearby will save you a lot of time andeffort.
  • Protecting containers from direct wind keeps them from drying out as much and prevents accidental tipping over. Depending on the size of your containers and the plants you’re growing, they may get top-heavy as the season goes on, which makes them more vulnerable to tipping over in strong winds. Place containers in sheltered locations or plan to secure them (e.g., with cinderblocks, stones, orropes).

Finally, think about the microclimates that exist on your property. Microclimates are small pockets of space in which the climate of the immediate area doesn’t match the greater climate of your location. For example, an asphalt driveway will hold onto warmth longer than a patch of grass will, so any pots placed on the driveway will be exposed to that extra warmth. On the one hand, this could mean that the pots dry out more quickly, but on the other hand, the plants may grow better thanks to the warmersoil.

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What Size Pot for ContainerGardening?

The most fundamental part of container gardening is—surprise—picking the right container! In general, the more space you can offer your plants’ roots, the better they will grow. Most vegetables need at least 12 inches of soil to grow well, but larger vegetables will require more space. A 5-gallon container is a good size for growing something like a tomato or squash plant, while a smaller container would be perfectly fine for shallow-rooted plants such as lettuce or othergreens.

Bear in mind that larger containers will be heavier and harder to move and may be too heavy for somewhere like a balcony. Small containers, on the other hand, are more mobile and versatile but also tend to dry out faster, requiring more attention on hotdays.

How Large Should the Drainage Holesbe?

A container should have a drainage hole or some other way to allow water to pass through it. Water-logged soil promotes bacterial and fungal growth, which will stunt plants’ productivity or kill them outright. Your climate factors into this as well; gardeners in drier areas may want to choose containers that retain more moisture, while those in more humid environments may want containers that allow for moreairflow.

If you have a container that is 4 to 6 inches in diameter, then you just need 3 to 6 drainage holes where each is 1/4th inch in size. Larger containers need 6 to 8 drainage holes, and the size would be 1/4th. Holes larger than 1/4 inch in diameter will allow too much soil toescape.

What Type of Pot Should I Use for ContainerGardening?

From plastic pots and cinderblocks to whiskey barrels and wheelbarrows, almost anything that holds soil can be gardened in. The final important factor to consider is what the container is made out of. These days, containers come in all sorts of types, each with its upsides and downsides. Here are a few of the most popular containermaterials:

  • Plastic: Plastic pots come in all sorts of shapes, colors, and sizes, which makes them one of the most popular choices for container gardening. Plastic pots also tend to be the cheapest option. They are relatively lightweight, hold in moisture well, and are easy to clean and reuse for many gardening seasons down the line. If you’re growing edibles, be sure to choose pots made out of food-grade plastic so that chemicals won’t leach into the soil.
  • Ceramic (terra-cotta): Ceramic pots are another popular choice. They tend to be more decorative than plastic pots but are also quite a bit heavier—especially when filled with soil. Ceramic pots come in glazed or unglazed styles; the main difference being that glazed pots hold in more moisture than unglazed pots. The great thing about ceramic pots is that the clay is porous, which allows some level of air and water to flow through it. This ensures that soil doesn’t get overly wet, but also means that soil in (unglazed) clay pots will dry out more quickly than in plastic pots. Additionally, ceramic pots are susceptible to cracking in cold weather, so they should be emptied and stored in a sheltered area through the winter.
  • Fabric: Fabric pots have become more popular in recent years thanks to their lightweight nature and the breathability they offer. They often come with handles, too, which makes moving them around very easy. Plus, they can be washed and reused fairly easily. The fabric allows air and water to easily flow through it, which is beneficial to plants’ roots, as they are encouraged to become more fibrous and, therefore, more efficient at taking in water and nutrients. One downside to fabric pots is that they dry out rather quickly, so consistent watering will berequired.

Again, almost anything can be used as a container, so get creative! Hanging baskets make good use of extra space, and herbs, cherry tomatoes,and strawberries grown at eye level can be easily tended and harvested.Use whiskey barrels (a wooden half-barrel can yield an amazing amount of food), buckets, baskets, boxes, bath- and other tubs, window boxes, and troughs—anything that holds soil. Just be sure that it has drainage holes in the bottom and is a size that you canmanage.

Watch the video below for more information on choosing the rightcontainer:

The Best Soil for ContainerGardening

In order to grow healthy plants, you need healthy soil. Plants in containers need the best possible nutrients, aeration, and drainage in order to encourage healthy root growth and to produce a goodharvest.

Do not use soil from the garden!Most garden soils are too heavy, can become easily waterlogged and compacted, and harbor disease and insects. Instead, use a “soilless” potting mix that’s specifically formulated for use in containers. It will be quick-draining and lightweight, and shouldn’t contain any diseases orpests.

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Soilless potting mixes tend to consist of some combination of peat (or coconut coir), perlite, and vermiculite, as well as other additives such as ground limestone and granulated fertilizers to provide nutrients. Here’s how to make your own soilless mix at home.

Got compost? Humus is a fantastic material to add to your container mix, as it contains plenty of nutrients and loosens the media. Read all about making compost!

How to WaterContainers

Because they are more exposed to sun and wind, containers tend to dry out more quickly than traditional gardens or raised beds. Especially during the hottest days of summer, many plants grown in pots must be watered as often as twice aday!

Containers can be watered in a number of ways—hoses, watering cans, drip irrigation. Choose a method that makes the most sense for you and the size of yourgarden.

A few wateringpointers:

  • Water in the morning (or as early as possible). Ideally, container plants should be watered as early in the day as possible. Watering early in the day provides plants with enough moisture to get them through the hotter midday hours. It also ensures that their leaves dry off by the time that night falls; having moisture on leaves at night can encourage the spread of disease.
  • Water deeply. Plants need water at their roots, so simply spraying the surface of the soil with the hose isn’t enough. Water plants—especially those in containers—deeply and thoroughly to ensure that water reaches down to their roots. After a watering, the soil should be saturated and water should run out the bottom of the pot. Alternatively, try watering from the bottom: Place a tray under the pot and fill it with water. The soil will absorb the water through the drainage hole(s). Repeat until no more water is absorbed, then dump out any excess water from the tray.
  • Don’t water too frequently! It may sound counterintuitive, but watering a plant with a small amount of water very frequently is worse than watering with a large amount infrequently. Frequent, shallow waterings encourage plants to develop weak, shallow roots, while infrequent, deep waterings encourage them to put down deeper, healthier roots. Most plants can tolerate—and actually benefit from—having a little break between deep waterings, so don’t be afraid to let the soil dry out a little bit betweenwaterings.

Other key things to keep in mind are the size of the pot and the weather. Smaller pots will dry out a lot more quickly than larger pots, and will require more frequent waterings. Hot, sunny days are naturally more drying than cool, cloudy ones, so expect to water more during heat waves. Overall, pay attention to the speed at which your container soil dries out as well as how your plants react; you will soon get a sense for how often you need towater!

One way to keep container plants adequately cool and moist during hot summer days is to double-pot them: Place a small pot inside a larger one and fill the space between them with sphagnum moss or crumpled newspaper. When watering the plant, also soak the filler between the pots. Caution: be sure to check your double-potted plants often, as the extra layer can also be a nice spot for pests tohide!

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Fertilizing ContainerGardens

Water flows through containers quickly, flushing nutrients out with it. This can be a good thing, as it will flush out any buildup of salts in the soil. However, this also means that it’s necessary to replenish those nutrients by feeding container plants more regularly than those grown in theground.

In general, we recommend adding a slow-release fertilizer to your potting mix at the start of the gardening season. This can be done by either mixing it into your potting mix at planting, or by sprinkling fertilizer on top of the potting mix (i.e., “top-dressing”) right after planting. This will give your plants a good head start ongrowth.

While they’re actively growing, flowering, and fruiting, use a liquid fertilizer to feed container plants at least twice a month, following the instructions on the label. It’s always a good idea to test your soil first, if possible, to gauge whether or not additional fertilizer is necessary. An occasional application of fish emulsion or compost will add trace elements to container soil aswell.

To keep vegetable plants growing, feed them organic soil amendments, likeliquid seaweed, fish emulsion, or manure tea. Read more about fertilizing container plants here!

Supporting ContainerPlants

While we won’t discourage you from chatting with your plants every now and then, in this case, we mean physical support. Support tall or climbing vegetables with trellises, stakes, netting, twine, or cages. Here’s how to build your own trellis or woodensupports.

A teepee of bamboo stakes will hold pole beans or snap peaswell. Cucumbers trained to climb up a nylon mesh fence will develop fruit that hang down and grow straight. To avoid damaging the plants or their roots, put supports in place at the time ofplanting.

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Which Vegetables Are Good for ContainersGardening?

When it comes to being grown in containers, some veggies do actually do better than others.Vegetables that can be easily transplanted are typically great candidates, as they will adjust easily to the potted environment. Transplants can be purchased from local nurseries or started athome.

In general, gravitate toward vegetable varieties that are considered “dwarf” or “container,” as they tend to stay smaller and are better suited to the container lifestyle.Check in your favoriteseed catalogs; many list varieties of vegetables bred specifically for growing in containers. Among tomatoes, for example, choose “bush” or “determinate” varieties, as they will grow to a set height and won’t get unwieldy in acontainer.

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To maximize space and thus your harvest, try planting low-growers and tall climbers together in the same container. The climbers will eagerly scramble up a trellis, while the small plants spread around their base. You’ll hardly need to weed because there won’t be any room for weeds to gain a foothold, and during the height of summer, some low-growers (leafy greens, for example) will thrive in the shade provided by the tallerplants.

Mix quick-maturing plants, such as lettuce or radishes, with longer-growing ones, like tomatoes or broccoli. Learn more about growing salad greens in containers here!

Group plants with similar needs for sun and water, such as pole beans, radishes, and lettuce; cucumber, bush beans, and beets; tomatoes, basil, and onions; and peas and carrots.

Check out our video for more information on which plants will thrive in your containergarden:

Finally, here are some suggested vegetables for containers, along with recommended container sizes andvarieties:

Beans, snap
Container: 5-gallon window box
Varieties: Bush ‘Blue Lake’, Bush ‘Romano’, ‘TenderCrop’

Container: 1 plant per 5 gallon pot, 3 plants per 15-gallon tub
Varieties: ‘DeCicco’, ‘GreenComet’

Container: 5-gallon window box at least 12 inches deep
Varieties: ‘Danvers Half Long’, ‘Short ‘n Sweet’, ‘TinySweet’

Container: 1 plant per 1-gallon pot
Varieties: ‘Patio Pik’, ‘Pot Luck’,‘Spacemaster’

Container:1 plant per 5-gallon pot
Varieties: ‘Black Beauty’, ‘Ichiban’, ‘SlimJim’

Container: 5-gallon window box
Varieties: ‘Ruby’, ‘SaladBowl’

Container: 5-gallon window box
Varieties: ‘White Sweet Spanish’, ‘Yellow SweetSpanish’

Container: 1 plant per 3-gallon pot, 5 plants per 15-gallon tub
Varieties: ‘Cayenne’, ‘Long Red’, ‘Sweet Banana’, ‘Wonder’,‘Yolo’

Container: 5-gallon window box
Varieties: ‘Cherry Belle’,‘Icicle’

Container:1 plant per 5-gallon pot
Varieties: ‘Early Girl’, ‘Patio’, ‘Small Fry’, ‘Sweet 100’, ‘TinyTim’

See our individual Vegetable Growing Guidesfor advice on growing other commonvegetables.

What has been your experience with container gardening and growing vegetables inpots?

Insights, advice, suggestions, feedback and comments from experts

Container gardening is a popular method for growing vegetables, especially for those who have limited yard space or only have access to a patio, balcony, driveway, or rooftop. It allows individuals to grow their own food even if they don't have room for raised beds or a large garden plot. Container gardening offers several benefits, including the ability to move pots to optimal locations for sunlight and growth, better control over growing conditions, reduced weed growth, streamlined gardening tasks, and easier harvesting [[1]].

When starting a container garden, it's important to consider factors such as sunlight exposure, water accessibility, protection from wind, and microclimates on your property. Most vegetables require full sun, which is around 6 to 8 hours of sunlight per day. However, leafy greens like lettuce and spinach can tolerate less sunlight, around 3 to 5 hours per day. Fruit-bearing plants like tomatoes, peppers, squash, and eggplant thrive in full sun. Southern and western exposures provide the most sunlight and warmth, while northern and eastern exposures are shadier and cooler [[2]].

Watering is a crucial aspect of container gardening. Containers tend to dry out more quickly than traditional gardens, so they require more frequent watering. It's best to water container plants in the morning, as early as possible, to provide enough moisture for the hotter midday hours and allow leaves to dry off before nightfall. Deep watering is essential to ensure that water reaches the roots of the plants. Water should saturate the soil and run out of the bottom of the pot. Smaller pots dry out faster than larger ones, so they may need more frequent watering. The frequency of watering also depends on the weather conditions [[3]].

Choosing the right container is another important consideration. The size of the pot should accommodate the plant's root system. Most vegetables need at least 12 inches of soil depth to grow well, but larger vegetables require more space. A 5-gallon container is suitable for growing plants like tomatoes or squash, while shallow-rooted plants like lettuce or greens can thrive in smaller containers. It's crucial to ensure that containers have drainage holes to prevent waterlogging, which can lead to root rot. The number and size of drainage holes depend on the container's diameter [[4]].

There are various materials available for containers, each with its advantages and disadvantages. Plastic pots are lightweight, affordable, and come in different shapes and sizes. They retain moisture well and are easy to clean and reuse. When choosing plastic pots for growing edibles, it's important to select food-grade plastic to avoid chemicals leaching into the soil. Ceramic pots are decorative but heavier. Glazed ceramic pots retain more moisture, while unglazed pots allow for better airflow. Fabric pots are lightweight, breathable, and encourage root growth. However, they tend to dry out quickly and require consistent watering [[5]].

To ensure healthy plant growth, it's important to use the right soil for container gardening. Garden soil is not suitable for containers as it can become waterlogged, compacted, and harbor diseases and insects. Instead, a soilless potting mix specifically formulated for containers is recommended. Soilless mixes typically consist of peat or coconut coir, perlite, vermiculite, and other additives for nutrients. Adding compost to the mix can improve its nutrient content and aeration [[6]].

Fertilizing container gardens is necessary because water quickly flushes out nutrients from containers. Adding a slow-release fertilizer to the potting mix at the beginning of the gardening season provides a good start for plants. Liquid fertilizers can be used to feed container plants at least twice a month during active growth. It's important to follow the instructions on the label and test the soil to determine if additional fertilizer is needed. Organic soil amendments like liquid seaweed, fish emulsion, or compost can also be beneficial [[7]].

Supporting container plants is essential, especially for tall or climbing vegetables. Trellises, stakes, netting, twine, or cages can be used to provide physical support. It's best to put supports in place at the time of planting to avoid damaging the plants or their roots later on [[8]].

Certain vegetables are well-suited for container gardening. It's recommended to choose varieties that are considered "dwarf" or "container" as they stay smaller and adapt well to container environments. Some examples of vegetables that can be grown in containers include beans, broccoli, carrots, cucumbers, eggplant, lettuce, onions, peppers, radishes, and tomatoes. The container size and variety recommendations vary for each vegetable [[9]].

In conclusion, container gardening is a fantastic way to grow vegetables, especially for those with limited yard space. It offers several benefits, including flexibility in plant placement, better control over growing conditions, reduced weed growth, streamlined gardening tasks, and easier harvesting. When starting a container garden, it's important to consider factors such as sunlight exposure, water accessibility, protection from wind, and microclimates. Choosing the right container, soil, and fertilizer, as well as providing support for plants, are crucial for successful container gardening.

The Complete Guide to Container Vegetable Gardening for Beginners (2024)
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